It was named after the 10th-century classical Iraqi poet Al-Mutanabbi. Late at night and early in the morning, when the air is cleanest, this is what Baghdad smells like. US politics. What It’s Like in Baghdad Right Now as an Extremist Group Inches Closer . Baghdad was a modernizing city, with wide boulevards and grassy traffic circles. [53] They consider Shiite Muslims to be "unbelievers," and Baghdad is a preodominantly Shiite city. Sultan Ahmad Jalayir fled to Syria, where the Mamluk Sultan Barquq protected him and killed Timur's envoys. And who you are, in terms of who you are employed by, because there are definite hierarchy based on employer. An aerial view of Baghdad, Iraq March 4, 2018. Baghdad and southern Iraq remained under Ottoman rule until 1917, when captured by the British during World War I. The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra is a government funded symphony orchestra in Baghdad. [33] In fact, by the time of Harun al-Rashid, Baghdad had a few thousand hammams. [119], Iraq's Tourism Board is also seeking investors to develop a "romantic" island on the River Tigris in Baghdad that was once a popular honeymoon spot for newlywed Iraqis. [28] It took four years to build (764–768). Many of the Abbasid caliphs were patrons of learning and enjoyed collecting both ancient and contemporary literature. According to the traveler Ibn Battuta, Baghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received. Baghdad is also home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it. 383 comments. As of the end of 2014, only 1,500 Assyrians remained in Dora. Beginning in April 2003, the U.S. controlled Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) began the process of creating new functions for these. By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis. [130], Baghdad is home to some of the most successful football (soccer) teams in Iraq, the biggest being Al-Shorta (Police), Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya (Airforce club), Al-Zawra'a, and Talaba (Students). [109] Following the sectarian violence in Iraq between the Sunni and Shia militia groups during the U.S. occupation of Iraq.The Iraqi Civil War following ISIS' invasion in 2014 caused hundreds of thousands of Iraqi internally displaced people to flee to the city. The round city of Baghdad in the 10th century, the peak of the Abbasid Caliphate. Al-Qushla: Iraq's oasis of free expression. From 1851 to 1852 and from 1861 to 1867, Baghdad was governed, under the Ottoman Empire by Mehmed Namık Pasha. "History of the Moof Abu Hanifa and its school", "DefenseLink News Article: Soldier Helps to Form Democracy in Baghdad", "Zafaraniya Residents Get Water Project Update – DefendAmerica News Article", "Basics of democracy in Iraq include frustration", "Leaders Highlight Successes of Baghdad Operation – DefendAmerica News Article", "Climatologie mensuelle en juillet 2020 à Baghdad | climatologie depuis 1900 – Infoclimat", "Baghdad Soars to 125 Blistering Degrees, Its Highest Temperature on Record", "Afp.google.com, First snow for 100 years falls on Baghdad", "World Weather Information Service – Baghdad", "Baghdad Climate Guide to the Average Weather & Temperatures, with Graphs Elucidating Sunshine and Rainfall Data & Information about Wind Speeds & Humidity", "Monthly weather forecast and climate for Baghdad, Iraq", "Baghdad plans to build giant Ferris wheel", "Iraq plans giant Ferris wheel, hopes to lure tourists to Baghdad", Wikinews: Iraq plans 'Baghdad Eye' to draw in tourists, "Obama ad attacks McCain for Baghdad Ferris wheel project being built on land leased by a Democratic Party donor", "New Ferris wheel attracts leisure-starved Iraqis", "Baghdad Investment: Creating (1824) housing units in Baghdad", Arrêté du 22 novembre 1990 complétant l'arrêté du 23 août 1990 fixant la liste des établissements d'enseignement prévue à l'article 1er du décret no 90-469 du 31 mai 1990, Deutscher Bundestag 4. During the 1970s, Baghdad experienced a period of prosperity and growth because of a sharp increase in the price of petroleum, Iraq's main export. Illustration: Jean Soutif/Science Photo Library . Within a short time, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center of the Muslim world. This system of 127 separate councils may seem overly cumbersome; however, Baghdad Province is home to approximately seven million people. Baghdad has suffered severely from visitations of the plague and cholera,[70] and sometimes two-thirds of its population has been wiped out.[71]. It is possible that Baghdad will see chaos.”. The city was designed as a circle about 2 km (1.2 mi) in diameter, leading it to be known as the "Round City". Some of the important cultural institutions in the city include the National Theater, which was looted during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, but efforts are underway to restore the theatre. [40] Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation until the 930s, when it tied with Córdoba. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Mosul is a highly attractivecity within the Nineveh province that has a vast supply of oil. [3] The city was largely destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. This style of urban planning contrasted with Ancient Greek and Roman urban planning, in which cities are designed as squares or rectangles with streets intersecting each other at right angles. Over 100,000 construction workers came to survey the plans; many were distributed salaries to start the building of the city. Beyond the outer wall was a water-filled moat. “We left after we saw everybody else leaving,” Abir, a 33-year-old teacher who joined the exodus with her husband and three children, told The Associated Press. At this point, Baghdad was ruled by the Ilkhanate, a breakaway state of the Mongol Empire, ruling from Iran. [31] Within the city there were many parks, gardens, villas, and promenades. Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanians, which was located some 30 km (19 mi) to the southeast. Eric March. Posted by 25 days ago. 98% Upvoted. Tughril Beg saw himself as the protector of the Abbasid Caliphs.[59]. By the 10th century, the city's population was between 1.2 million[57] and 2 million. What exactly is The American dream, and does it even exist anymore, and if so, does The American Dream have the same meaning today as it had in the past? Each gate had double doors that were made of iron; the doors were so heavy it took several men to open and close them. metrolyrics.com. A concise Pahlavi Dictionary (p. 23, 16). The land on which the city is built is almost entirely flat and low-lying, being of alluvial origin due to the periodic large floods which have occurred on the river. Close. Joneidi, F. (2007). Among the notable features of Baghdad during this period were its exceptional libraries. But life goes on. Baghdad has a long and illustrious history. Once it was a prestigious learning and cultural center. In Meri, J.W. “Some of them have already gone to Kurdistan region and others went abroad. New infrastructure including modern sewerage, water, and highway facilities were built during this period. Famous Arab poets and singers such as Nizar Qabbani, Umm Kulthum, Fairuz, Salah Al-Hamdani, Ilham al-Madfai and others have performed for the city. By the 8th century Islamic scholars were using paper rather than parchment or papyrus for their writing. It has recently come to light that the famed Fatimid da'i, al-Mu'ayyad al-Shirazi, had a direct role in supporting al-Basasiri and helped the general to succeed in taking Mawṣil, Wāsit and Kufa. Iraqi Airways, the national airline of Iraq, has its headquarters on the grounds of Baghdad International Airport in Baghdad. [50][51][52] Baghdad was also a significant center of Islamic religious learning, with Al-Jahiz contributing to the formation of Mu'tazili theology, as well as Al-Tabari culminating in the scholarship on the Quranic exegesis. [56] The last two were examples of madrasa or theological college libraries. متن‌های پهلوی. For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East. The roundness points to the fact that it was based on Arabic script. What Celebrities Look Like Now . The process initially focused on the election of neighbourhood councils in the official neighbourhoods, elected by neighbourhood caucuses. Many don’t know where they will stay tonight. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, and on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. Fifteen years after the US entered Iraq, Baghdad breathes new life. [16][17], A few authors have suggested older origins for the name, in particular the name Bagdadu or Hudadu that existed in Old Babylonian (spelled with a sign that can represent both bag and hu), and the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called "Baghdatha". Municipally, the governorate is divided into 9 municipalities, which have responsibility for local issues. The city was also home to a large Jewish community and regularly visited by Sikh pilgrims. The monument was opened in 1983, and was designed by the Iraqi architect Saman Kamal and the Iraqi sculptor and artist Ismail Fatah Al Turk. It is the historic center of Baghdadi book-selling, a street filled with bookstores and outdoor book stalls. And that past goes back to the beginning of civilization," Michael Goldfarbwrote on his time in Mosul. save. Baghdad, also spelled Bagdad, Arabic Baghdād, formerly Madīnat al-Salām (Arabic: “City of Peace”), city, capital of Iraq and capital of Baghdad governorate, central Iraq. “I went today, but the market was deserted. Picture taken on board a helicopter. [34] In the center of the city lay the mosque, as well as headquarters for guards. On street corners, storytellers engaged crowds with tales such as those later told in Arabian Nights. “All the people are afraid now,” Arkan told Reuters. The original city was designed in the shape of a circle 2 km across. Baghdad (/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic: بَغْدَاد‎ [baɣˈdaːd] (listen)) is the capital of Iraq and one of the largest cities in the Arab world, and compared to its large population it has a small area at just 673 square kilometers (260 sq mi). [40] Baytul-Hikmah or the "House of Wisdom" was among the most well known academies,[41] and had the largest selection of books in the world by the middle of the 9th century. Ali Yaycioğlu (Stanford). The city flourished into an unrivaled intellectual center of science, medicine, philosophy, and education, especially with the Abbasid Translation Movement began under the second caliph Al-Mansur and thrived under the seventh caliph Al-Ma'mun. In addition, the go-ahead has been given to build numerous architecturally unique skyscrapers along the Tigris that would develop the city's financial centre in Kadhehemiah. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. "Smothered in history, it is yet another place where the past never dies and isn't even past. In August 1393, Baghdad was occupied by the Central Asian Turkic conqueror Timur ("Tamerlane"),[67] by marching there in only eight days from Shiraz. In 1991 and 2003, the Gulf War and the 2003 invasion of Iraq caused significant damage to Baghdad's transportation, power, and sanitary infrastructure as the US-led coalition forces launched massive aerial assaults in the city in the two wars. The Sasanian city of Gur in Fars, built 500 years before Baghdad, is nearly identical in its general circular design, radiating avenues, and the government buildings and temples at the centre of the city. [25], The city's growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors: it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, and it had an abundance of water in a dry climate. The Tigris splits Baghdad in half, with the eastern half being called "Risafa" and the Western half known as "Karkh". The same process was used to provide representative councils for the other communities in Baghdad Province outside of the city itself. The zoological park used to be the largest in the Middle East. Baghdad was eventually sacked by the Mongols, but that wasn’t until 1250 A.D. Today, Baghdad boasts roughly 5.6 million citizens (although estimates vary upward significantly) and serves … We’ve arrived in the middle of the weekly book market—Mustafa promises this will say “more about the city today than ... and we take a few wrong turns down small side streets looking for a particular bakery that Ali wants us to see. In 2003, he thought the new Iraq would be orderly, liberal and secular. He lives in Iskan, a poor, crowded neighborhood near downtown Baghdad. ", Stanek, L., Miastoprojekt goes abroad: the transfer of architectural labour from socialist Poland to Iraq (1958–1989), The Journal of Architecture, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2012, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, substantial loss of cultural heritage and historical artifacts, Learn how and when to remove this template message, staged a coup to topple the Kingdom of Iraq, List of neighborhoods and districts in Baghdad, Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center, "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey", "Cities and urban areas in Iraq with population over 100,000", "BAGHDAD i. The purpose or use of the remaining space in the center is unknown. Direct Ottoman rule was reimposed by Ali Rıza Pasha in 1831. Winter temperatures are typical of hot desert climates. Iraqi army soldiers have abandoned their posts rather than confront the militants, spooking citizens. The name was changed to Al-Mustansiriya University in 1963. [8] They suggested various meanings, the most common of which was "bestowed by God". Soon after,[61] by December 1058, a Shi'i adhān (call to prayer) was implemented in Baghdad and a khutbah (sermon) was delivered in the name of the Fatimid Imam-Caliph. [12][13] In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god",[8][14] A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt (Mihrdād in New Persian), known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "Given by Mithra" (dāt is the more archaic form of dād, related to Latin dat and English donor[8]). As early as 2003, about 20 percent of the population of the city was the result of mixed marriages between Shi'ites and Sunnis. ed. Ali … [...] The Persian hamlet of Baghdad, on the Western bank of the Tigris, and just above where Sarat canal flowed in, was ultimately fixed upon [...]. Marketplaces are some of the most dangerous places in Baghdad. The Mongols massacred most of the city's inhabitants, including the caliph Al-Musta'sim, and destroyed large sections of the city. The historic "Assyrian Quarter" of the city, Dora, which boasted a population of 150,000 Assyrians in 2003, made up over 3% of the capital's Assyrian population then. [8] Modern scholars generally tend to favor this etymology,[8] which views the word as a compound of bagh () "god" and dād () "given". In 1040, they destroyed the Ghaznavids, taking over their land and in 1055, Tughril Beg, the leader of the Seljuks, took over Baghdad. Baghdad accounts for 22.2% of Iraq's population and 40% of the country's gross domestic product (PPP). King Faisal II, former Prime Minister Nuri as-Said, former Regent Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, members of the royal family, and others were brutally killed during the coup. [103] On 11 January 2008, light snow fell across Baghdad for the first time in 100 years. "Naked in Baghdad." Lows below freezing occur a couple of times per year on average. [113], The Baghdad Eye, a 198 m (650 ft) tall Ferris wheel, was proposed for Baghdad in August 2008. Sunni Muslims make up 45% of Iraq's population and they are still a majority in west and north Iraq. It connects the center to the southern neighborhood of Dora. In 1401, Baghdad was again sacked, by Timur. The city’s Asian community (red dots) lives to the northeast, and whites (blue dots) live to the east and southeast. [72] The Nuttall Encyclopedia reports the 1907 population of Baghdad as 185,000. (2006). As within the city, the district councils then elected representatives from among their members to serve on the 35 member Baghdad Regional Council. A 3D model of what Baghdad looked like in the 8th century. [83] It is characterized by the iconic clock tower which was donated by George V. The entire area is submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Tentative list.[84]. Artists and music and writers, and all of the history. As before, the representatives to the Provincial Council were elected by their peers from the lower councils in numbers proportional to the population of the districts they represent. "by Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. The dialect of Arabic spoken in Baghdad today differs from that of other large urban centres in Iraq, having features more characteristic of nomadic Arabic dialects (Versteegh, The Arabic Language). In the center of the city stood the two finest buildings in the city: the Great Mosque and the caliph’s … by Cetinsaya, Gokhan. "Historic cities of the Islamic world. [8][18][19] Some scholars suggested Aramaic derivations.[8]. [29] July was chosen as the starting time because two astrologers, Naubakht Ahvazi and Mashallah, believed that the city should be built under the sign of the lion, Leo. The Sultan of Baghdad, Abu Said Bahadur Khan, was a Tatar king who embraced Islam.[27]. The project would include a six-star hotel, spa, an 18-hole golf course and a country club. During the tenth century there were two distinguished Jewish families in Baghdad, *Netira and Aaron. On 31 May, after the resulting Anglo-Iraqi War and after Rashid Ali and his government had fled, the Mayor of Baghdad surrendered to British and Commonwealth forces. [75] However, the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s was a difficult time for the city, as money was diverted by Saddam Hussein to the army and thousands of residents were killed. Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. [62], On 10 February 1258, Baghdad was captured by the Mongols led by Hulegu, a grandson of Chingiz Khan (Genghis Khan), during the siege of Baghdad. Conservationist Lawrence Anthony and some of the zoo keepers cared for the animals and fed the carnivores with donkeys they had bought locally. Sort by. During the 2003 occupation of Iraq, AFN Iraq ("Freedom Radio") broadcast news and entertainment within Baghdad, among other locations. level 1. The Muslim historian al-Tabari reported an ancient prediction by Christian …