[90][93] In spite of the orders to stop, Eichmann personally made arrangements for additional trains of victims to be sent to Auschwitz on 17 and 19 July. imgTitleFinal = "" + TitleTrimmed + "" ; He initially found work in the forestry industry and later leased a small plot of land in Altensalzkoth, where he lived until 1950. He held a series of low-paying jobs until finding employment at Mercedes-Benz, where he rose to department head. [192] The defence team mostly relied on legal arguments about Israel's jurisdiction and the legality of the laws under which Eichmann was charged. [141] On 23 June, the Council passed Resolution 138 which agreed that Argentine sovereignty had been violated and requested that Israel should make reparations. [72], To co-ordinate planning for the proposed genocide, Heydrich hosted the Wannsee Conference, which brought together administrative leaders of the Nazi regime on 20 January 1942. [140] Argentina requested an urgent meeting of the United Nations Security Council in June 1960, after unsuccessful negotiations with Israel, as they regarded the capture to be a violation of their sovereign rights. dataLayer.push({'event': 'GA_Event_zynet', 'Category': 'Article Gallery', 'Action': 'Show', 'Label': 'http://www.ynet.co.il/english/articles/0,7340,L-5388512,00.html'}); [164] The building was modified to allow journalists to watch the trial on closed-circuit television, and 750 seats were available in the auditorium itself. var isMobile1 = _isMobile(); To co-ordinate planning for the genocide, Heydrich, who was Eichmann's superior, hosted the regime's administrative leaders at the Wannsee Conference on 20 January 1942. [62] On 15 August 1940, Eichmann released a memorandum titled Reichssicherheitshauptamt: Madagaskar Projekt (Reich Main Security Office: Madagascar Project), calling for the resettlement to Madagascar of a million Jews per year for four years. The documents also revealed that both agencies had used some of Eichmann's former Nazi colleagues to spy on European Communist countries. if(typeof isMobile !== 'undefined' && isMobile) { [217], "Eichmann" redirects here. [84], Germany invaded Hungary on 19 March 1944. [134] Eitan told the Haaretz newspaper in 2008 that they decided not to pursue Mengele as it might have jeopardised the Eichmann operation. Long live Argentina. [136] He was smuggled out of Argentina aboard the same El Al Bristol Britannia aircraft that had carried Israel's delegation a few days earlier to the official 150th anniversary celebration of the May Revolution. [89] Round-ups began on 16 April, and from 14 May, four trains of 3,000 Jews per day left Hungary and travelled to the camp at Auschwitz II-Birkenau, arriving along a newly built spur line that terminated a few hundred metres away from the gas chambers. [180] On the last day of the examination, he stated that he was guilty of arranging the transports, but he did not feel guilty for the consequences. }); He prepared an anti-Masonic exhibition, which proved to be extremely popular. [191], Eichmann's defence team appealed the verdict to the Israeli Supreme Court. [186] The judges declared him not guilty of personally killing anyone and not guilty of overseeing and controlling the activities of the Einsatzgruppen. [95] Eichmann later testified that Berlin had authorised him to allow emigration of a million Jews in exchange for 10,000 trucks equipped to handle the wintry conditions on the Eastern Front. The youngest, Ricardo, rejected him and said his execution was justified. He worked as a travelling oil salesman beginning in 1927, and joined both the Nazi Party and the SS … } [13] He left without attaining a degree and joined his father's new enterprise, the Untersberg Mining Company, where he worked for several months. [18], On the advice of family friend and local SS leader Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Eichmann joined the Austrian branch of the Nazi Party on 1 April 1932, member number 889,895. [153] Eichmann was convicted on 15 counts of crimes against humanity, war crimes, crimes against the Jewish people, and membership in a criminal organisation. When he was executed, Klaus and Horst became very angry and started attacking Jews. imgTitleFinalAlt = ''; As a clear decision to exterminate had been made by his superiors, the matter was out of his hands; he felt absolved of any guilt. [54], On 19 December 1939, Eichmann was assigned to head RSHA Referat IV B4 (RSHA Sub-Department IV-B4), tasked with overseeing Jewish affairs and evacuation. } Following the war Eichmann lived in Germany under a false name before fleeing to Argentina, where he … Ricardo, the youngest son, was born in Argentina. Somit ist für jede Anspruchsklasse und jedes Budget etwas geeignetes dabei. [184] During later examination by the judges, he admitted he meant the Jews, and said the remark was an accurate reflection of his opinion at the time. If Horst thought Eichman was guilty, his whole world would have fallen apart," she told The Daily Mail. imgCredit = yq(value).children().find('.citv_credit').html() || yq(value).children().find('.ya_citv_credit').html(); { [188] In addition to being found guilty of crimes against Jews, he was convicted for crimes against Poles, Slovenes and Gypsies. yq('.magnifyPic'+value.id).css('display', 'block'); [117] Hermann then sent his daughter on a fact-finding mission; she was met at the door by Eichmann himself, who said that he was Klaus's uncle. [21], Like many other National Socialists fleeing Austria in the spring of 1933, Eichmann left for Passau, where he joined Andreas Bolek at his headquarters. imgTitleFinal = "" [213], In her 2011 book Eichmann Before Jerusalem, based largely on the Sassen interviews and Eichmann's notes made while in exile, Bettina Stangneth argues instead that Eichmann was an ideologically motivated antisemite and lifelong committed Nazi who intentionally built a persona as a faceless bureaucrat for presentation at the trial. } They all knew it would happen," she told the British newspaper. [43] Jewish community organisations were placed under supervision of the SD and tasked with encouraging and facilitating Jewish emigration. [102], At the end of the war, Eichmann was captured by US forces and spent time in several camps for SS officers using forged papers that identified him as Otto Eckmann. The Nazis began the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, and their Jewish policy changed from emigration to extermination. He lived with his wife in a modest house in Buenos Aires, where he worked in a Mercedes factory. The execution was prepared to take place at midnight on 31 May but was slightly delayed; Eichmann thus died a few minutes into 1 June. [51] He was immediately assigned to organise the deportation of 70,000 to 80,000 Jews from Ostrava district in Moravia and Katowice district in the recently annexed portion of Poland. [172] The prosecution proved that Eichmann had visited places where exterminations had taken place, including Chełmno extermination camp, Auschwitz, and Minsk (where he witnessed a mass shooting of Jews),[173] and therefore was aware that the deportees were being killed. His wife, who disliked Berlin, resided in Prague with the children. [123][124] Harel arrived in May 1960 to oversee the capture. Eichmann was kidnapped by Mossad agents in Argentina in 1960 and brought to Israel. "[152], Eichmann's trial before a special tribunal of the Jerusalem District Court began on 11 April 1961. [153] The legal basis of the charges against Eichmann was the 1950 Nazi and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law,[154][h] under which he was indicted on 15 criminal charges, including crimes against humanity, war crimes, crimes against the Jewish people, and membership in a criminal organisation. Adolf Eichmann during his trial in Jerusalem (public domain) Two of Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann’s four sons are dead and a third lives in Argentina, just a … [208] The trial therefore greatly reduced the previously popular misconception that Jews had gone "like sheep to the slaughter". function _isMobile() { [106] He departed from Genoa by ship on 17 June 1950 and arrived in Buenos Aires on 14 July. The family was prepared for his execution. Eichmann was frightened and attempted to leave, but two more Mossad men came to Malkin's aid. var imgTitleFinalAlt; "I was not a responsible leader, and as such do not feel myself guilty. Eichmann initially visited them weekly, but as time went on, his visits tapered off to once a month. He was hoping to bring Mengele back to Israel on the same flight. [7] His parents were Adolf Karl Eichmann, a bookkeeper, and Maria (née Schefferling), a housewife. [205], The trial and the surrounding media coverage sparked renewed interest in wartime events, and the resulting increase in publication of memoirs and scholarly works helped raise public awareness of the Holocaust. [203], Rafi Eitan, who accompanied Eichmann to the hanging, claimed in 2014 to have heard him later mumble "I hope that all of you will follow me", making those his final words. [69], Eichmann stated at his later interrogations that Heydrich told him in mid-September that Hitler had ordered that all Jews in German-controlled Europe were to be killed. Eichmann pursued party activities in Linz on weekends while continuing in his position at Vacuum Oil in Salzburg. Eichmann was accepted into the SD and assigned to the sub-office on Freemasons, organising seized ritual objects for a proposed museum and creating a card index of German Freemasons and Masonic organisations. He obtained new identity papers with the name of Otto Heninger and relocated frequently over the next several months, moving ultimately to the Lüneburg Heath. Eichmann’s second son, born in … [77] The genocide was code-named Operation Reinhard in honour of Heydrich, who died in Prague in early June from wounds suffered in an assassination attempt. In the last week of October 1939, 4,700 Jews were sent to the area by train and were essentially left to fend for themselves in an open meadow with no water and little food. [60][61] Horrendous conditions in the ghettos—severe overcrowding, poor sanitation, and a lack of food—resulted in a high death rate. He told his sons that Hitler went after the Jews because they planned to sterilise Germans by putting chemicals in the water. Horst was sent to prison two years later for possession of firearms and Nazi propaganda material. [104], In 1948, Eichmann obtained a landing permit for Argentina and false identification under the name Ricardo Klement through an organisation directed by Bishop Alois Hudal, an Austrian cleric then residing in Italy with known Nazi sympathies. [182] Eichmann admitted to not liking the Jews and viewing them as adversaries, but stated that he never thought their annihilation was justified. [23] In late December, when this unit was dissolved, Eichmann was promoted to SS-Scharführer (squad leader, equivalent to corporal). [132] During these days, Harel tried to locate Josef Mengele, the notorious Nazi doctor from Auschwitz, as the Mossad had information that he was also living in Buenos Aires. [119] The government of Israel paid a reward to Hermann in 1971, twelve years after he had provided the information. Klaus, Eichmann's firstborn son, was extremely radical and deeply committed to Nazi ideology. [100], On 24 December 1944, Eichmann fled Budapest just before the Soviets completed their encirclement of the capital. He knew what was coming and the older children knew it too. [215], Eichmann's youngest son Ricardo Eichmann says he is not resentful toward Israel for executing his father. It was also reported that in 1962, following a shoot-out with the police, cops raided the Nazi cell's headqaurters and uncovered Nazi propaganda, rifles and Molotov cocktails— with which they planned to attack a Jewish schoolbus. yq('.magnifyPic'+value.id).css({background: "url(/images/articlepiclightbox/enlarge.png)"}) In May 2007, a student doing research on Eichmann's capture discovered the passport in court archives in Argentina. [14][15], During this time, he joined the Jungfrontkämpfervereinigung, the youth section of Hermann Hiltl's right-wing veterans movement, and began reading newspapers published by the Nazi Party. [4], After Germany's defeat in 1945, Eichmann was captured by US forces, but escaped from a detention camp and moved around Germany to avoid re-capture. Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Horst Adolf Eichmann (1940–Dec 2015), Find a Grave Memorial no. On the advice of family friend and local SS leader Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Eichmann joined the Austrian branch of the Nazi Party on 1 April 1932, member number 889,895. [17] They promised a strong central government, increased Lebensraum (living space) for Germanic peoples, formation of a national community based on race, and racial cleansing via the active suppression of Jews, who would be stripped of their citizenship and civil rights. "All these things they are accusing my father of are pure propaganda…These war crimes are not true… I have heard that top Jews themselves ordered these executions because they believe Jews should be martyrs," he said in a 1961 interview with Parade Magazine during a visit to the United States which, according to CIA documents, prompted local authorities to deport him. [5] The execution was attended by a small group of officials, four journalists and the Canadian clergyman William Lovell Hull, who had been Eichmann's spiritual counselor while in prison. [20] His regiment was SS-Standarte 37, responsible for guarding the party headquarters in Linz and protecting party speakers at rallies, which would often become violent. [170] In addition to wartime documents, material presented as evidence included tapes and transcripts from Eichmann's interrogation and Sassen's interviews in Argentina. [162] Many major newspapers from all over the globe sent reporters and published front-page coverage of the story. The youngest, Ricardo, rejected him and said his execution was justified. Eichmann, who was responsible for the deportation of European Jews to ghettos and extermination camps, escaped and settled in Argentina under the alias Ricardo Klement. [133] However, Mengele had already left his last known residence in the city, and Harel had no further leads, so the plans for his capture were abandoned. [96] Nothing came of the proposal, as the Western Allies refused to consider the offer. [171], Some of the evidence submitted by the prosecution took the form of depositions made by leading Nazis. [34] Eichmann left the church in 1937. [197] Eichmann's wife and brothers also wrote to Ben-Zvi requesting clemency. Eichmann arrived the same day, and was soon joined by top members of his staff and five or six hundred members of the SD, SS, and Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo, "Security Police"). The operation soon was called off, partly because Hitler decided the required trains were better used for military purposes for the time being. His membership in the SS was confirmed seven months later (SS member number 45,326). [190] On 15 December 1961, Eichmann was sentenced to death by hanging. Otto Adolf Eichmann (* 19. event.preventDefault(); Eichmann and his staff became responsible for Jewish deportations to extermination camps, where the victims were gassed. [151] His pardon plea, released in 2016, did not contradict this: "There is a need to draw a line between the leaders responsible and the people like me forced to serve as mere instruments in the hands of the leaders", Eichmann wrote. By … [95] In June 1944 Eichmann was involved in negotiations with Rudolf Kasztner that resulted in the rescue of 1,684 people, who were sent by train to safety in Switzerland in exchange for three suitcases full of diamonds, gold, cash, and securities. imgTitleFinal += "" + "(" + imgCredit + ")" + "" ; Eichmann pursued party activities in Linz on weekends while continuing in … [167] In the case of the Sassen interviews, only Eichmann's hand-written notes were admitted into evidence. The ringer leader, Adolf Hitler, committed suicide before the Allies could capture him and make him answer for the war, much to the frustration and disappointment of his enemies. He escaped from a work detail at Cham, Germany, when he realised that his identity had been discovered. "After Grandpa Eichmann was kidnapped, the family was in crisis. Under the Nisko Plan, Eichmann chose Nisko as the location for a new transit camp where Jews would be temporarily housed before being deported elsewhere. str = value.id; [52][51] Many of the deportees were driven by the SS into Soviet-occupied territory and others were eventually placed in a nearby labour camp. [57][58] While Eichmann claimed at his trial to be upset by the appalling conditions on the trains and in the transit camps, his correspondence and documents of the period show that his primary concern was to achieve the deportations economically and with minimal disruption to Germany's ongoing military operations. [105] These documents enabled him to obtain an International Committee of the Red Cross humanitarian passport and the remaining entry permits in 1950 that would allow emigration to Argentina. }); [65], From the start of the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Einsatzgruppen (task forces) followed the army into conquered areas and rounded up and killed Jews, Comintern officials, and ranking members of the Communist Party. Ben Kingsley as Adolf Eichmann in "Operation Finale". { yq(value).find(res).attr('title' , imgTitleFinalAlt); function PushOpeningPicture() { [185], The trial adjourned on 14 August, and the verdict was read on 12 December. In the context of this main hearing, I request you to extend legal assistance to this Court by the examination on oath of the following witness: Dr. Theodor Horst Grell, Berchtesgaden/Upper Bavaria, Hasensprung 31-32. [99] Throughout October and November, Eichmann arranged for tens of thousands of Jewish victims to be forced to march, in appalling conditions, from Budapest to Vienna, a distance of 210 kilometres (130 mi). [207] In Israel, the testimony of witnesses at the trial led to a deeper awareness of the impact of the Holocaust on survivors, especially among younger citizens. }); Eichmann, the mastermind of the so-called “Final Solution” to rid Europe of its Jews, sent 6 million Jews to their deaths during World War II. No. var imgTitleLength = imgTitle.length; [71] Around this time, Eichmann was promoted to SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel), the highest rank he achieved. Barracks were planned but never completed. Unser Team aus Experten hat Horst adolf eichmann jedes Preisbereichs verglichen.8. Carmen is a seamstress by profession and has lived with Horst for 13 years. [150] Inspector Less noted that Eichmann did not seem to realise the enormity of his crimes and showed no remorse. According to MailOnline, Klaus and Horst are dead, while Ricardo, … [55] The job entailed co-ordinating with police agencies for the physical removal of the Jews, dealing with their confiscated property, and arranging financing and transport. Adolf Eichmann was one of the most pivotal actors in the implementation of the “Final Solution.” Charged with managing and facilitating the mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and killing centers in the German-occupied East, he was among the major organizers of the Holocaust. In 1959 Klaus married Martha — a woman of African descent. He was hanged on the night between May 31 and June 1, 1962, exactly 53 years ago. { Colonel Hofstaetter (my immediate superior) and I had sent for him to be brought to the room where the hearings were to take place. Eichmann lấy vợ tên Veronica Liebl (sinh 1909 – mất 1997) ngày 21 tháng 3 năm 1935, sinh được 4 người con: Klaus Eichmann (sinh 1936 tại Berlin), Horst Adolf Eichmann (sinh 1940 tại Viên), Dieter Helmut Eichmann (sinh 1942 tại Praha), và Ricardo Francisco Eichmann (sinh 1955 tại Buenos Aires). [15], A few months after the Nazi seizure of power in Germany in January 1933, Eichmann lost his job due to staffing cutbacks at Vacuum Oil. [196] Eichmann immediately petitioned Israeli President Yitzhak Ben-Zvi for clemency. These events were factors in Eichmann's decision to return to Germany. For other uses, see, "Operation Eichmann" redirects here. [131], Eichmann was taken to one of several Mossad safe houses that had been set up by the team. var imgTitle; yq('.magnifyPic'+value.id).css({background: "url(/images/articlepiclightbox/enlarge-over.png)"}); [53] Meanwhile, as part of Hitler's long-range resettlement plans, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans were being transported into the annexed territories, and ethnic Poles and Jews were being moved further east, particularly into the General Government. [178] Servatius also proposed that decisions of the Nazi government were acts of state and therefore not subject to normal judicial proceedings. But Hausner, in his role as Attorney General, declared that he would be obliged to have any war criminals who entered Israel arrested. } [64] Hitler continued to mention the Plan until February 1942, when the idea was permanently shelved. Eichmann had four sons; the three eldest, Klaus, Horst and Dieter, remained loyal to him even after his death. { Adolf Eichmann was the mastermind behind the Holocaust and gatekeeper of the Third Reich who sent six million Jews to their deaths; ... Horst Eichmann. [149] Using documents provided primarily by Yad Vashem and Nazi hunter Tuviah Friedman, Less was often able to determine when Eichmann was lying or being evasive. imgTitle = yq(value).children().find('.citv_title').html(); He even learned a smattering of Hebrew and Yiddish, gaining a reputation as a specialist in Zionist and Jewish matters. That made things even worse for them," Carmen added. Eichmann initially told his sons that he was their uncle, in order to prevent his true identity from being discovered, and confessed the truth only after an argument with Horst, she explained. [44] Funding came from money seized from other Jewish people and organisations, as well as donations from overseas, which were placed under SD control. The three wrestled Eichmann to the ground and, after a struggle, moved him to a car where they hid him on the floor under a blanket. [181], Throughout his cross-examination, prosecutor Hausner attempted to get Eichmann to admit he was personally guilty, but no such confession was forthcoming. yq(this).siblings('.ya_enlarge_button').fadeIn(200).css('display', 'block'); Later on, Klaus left his wife and moved to southern Germany, where he had three more children from another woman. [198] Prominent people such as Hugo Bergmann, Pearl S. Buck, Martin Buber, and Ernst Simon spoke against applying the death penalty. [54] Heydrich announced Eichmann to be his "special expert", in charge of arranging for all deportations into occupied Poland. The content of his letter and other trial documents were made public on 27 January 2016. I saw Adolf Eichmann for the first time at about 4:45 p.m. on May 29, 1960. Eichmann produced tapes, transcripts, and handwritten notes. if (imgCredit != null) TitleTrimmed = imgTitle.substring(0, 90); [6][211] In his 1988 book Justice, Not Vengeance, Wiesenthal said: "The world now understands the concept of 'desk murderer'. We'll meet again soon, as is the fate of all men. Eichmann was captured by the Mossad in Argentina on 11 May 1960 and subsequently found guilty of war crimes in a widely publicised trial in Jerusalem, where he was executed by hanging in 1962. [82] His department was in constant contact with the Foreign Office, as Jews of conquered nations such as France could not as easily be stripped of their possessions and deported to their deaths. [214] Prominent historians such as Christopher Browning, Deborah Lipstadt, Yaacov Lozowick, and David Cesarani reached a similar conclusion: that Eichmann was not the unthinking bureaucratic functionary that Arendt believed him to be. [157] The defence team consisted of German lawyer Robert Servatius, legal assistant Dieter Wechtenbruch, and Eichmann himself. Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann penned a plea for his life to Israel’s president two days before he was hanged in 1962 for masterminding the “Final Solution” plan to exterminate 6 million Jews. On his own initiative, Eichmann also laid plans to deport Jews from Vienna. [150] When additional information was brought forward that forced Eichmann into admitting what he had done, Eichmann would insist he had no authority in the Nazi hierarchy and was only following orders. [139], In Argentina, news of the abduction was met with a violent wave of antisemitism carried out by far-right elements, including the Tacuara Nationalist Movement.