Emphasis Nietzsche’s. See also D. Owen (2009) ‘Autonomy, Self-Respect, and Self-Love: Nietzsche on Ethical Agency’, in K. G. May (ed.) New Nietzsche Studies, 10(3 & 4), 137–152. In this way, the profound Hellene was saved: art had saved him.31 Here Nietzsche emancipates himself from Schopenhauer. and trans. Johansson, V., & Schumann, C. (2017). Lanham: University Press of America. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press. Kaag, J. Authenticity and learning: Nietzsche’s educational philosophy. In his famous discussion of the ‘last men’ in his Zarathustra, Nietzsche will again use Bildung more broadly but also derisively to refer to the modern pride in civilized society, a society Nietzsche sees as spiritually bankrupt (See F. Nietzsche (1966) Thus Spoke Zarathustra, Trans. Ward (forthcoming) Natural Rights and Political Philosophy. In  C.  K.  Chapple  (Ed. Taylor (1997) The Republic of Genius, pp. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. In  Open  secrets:  Literature,  education,  and  authority from J-J. Thus we scarcely  remember  our  own  present  lives  as  we  live  them  now, we are barely conscious of them (the window, Nietzsche says, of consciousness  is  small)  how  would we remember lives past and past and past? Dordrecht: Kluwer. ), Nietzsche and Transhumanism: Precursor or Enemy (pp. The crowd, on  the other hand,  were  we in need of a reminder of Plato’s cave given the  first allusion to downgoing, is preoccupied with  the  dancer as they came to see him dance  above  the  market  place. This alone should catch us up a bit. Babich, 2010a). Friedrich Nietzsche and the politics of transfiguration. Yet it is Nietzsche himself who insists in the last book of the first edition of The Gay Science that this thought—thought in just  this  way—is  his  heaviest  thought: so he titles it, and, as if to match the challenge, promptly ends the book. Löw,  R.  (1984). Kingsley, 1995 who does not to be sure refer to Nietzsche, though he ought perhaps to have done so), Cerberus, and so on, for guides, like Nietzsche’s companions to the underworld, and ‘stillest midnight, when even dogs believe in ghosts’. Untimely Meditations , Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. Babich, B. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. International Journal of Philosophical Studies: Vol. Oxford: Blackwell. (2016). On this point, see Kant’s remarks about the ‘Copernican revolution in philosophy’ at Bxvi in the Critique of Pure Reason, Trans. of The Gay Science (1887), p.38 (KSA 4/352). New York: Routledge. Philologus. (BGE §68) You are not only no longer present to the past self that you were, but you have  good  reason  to  forget  that  self,  those  actions, those promises: there is no past present to you for you to  be  able  to  be  conscious of unless you undertake, as opposed to the active forgetting Nietzsche recommends, an active remembering of the past. Philosophical  Exercise. He does use two different German terms that are often rendered as ‘culture’ in English translations - Kultur and Bildung - but Nietzsche employs these terms interchangeably, despite the venerable tradition of German theory of Bildung. Hence a reviewer of a collection on the theme  of  Nietzsche,  Culture,  Education  (Hart,  2008)  pronounces what  he assumes to be gospel: ‘it is not hard to reflect on what Nietzsche would have made of’ one of the contributions, ‘ponderous’, ‘demonstrating’ ‘erudition’ ‘through references to such luminaries  as Pindar, Heraclitus, Hegel, and Heidegger’. London: Continuum. (2017). See also Nietzsche’s suggestion that the ‘whole life of a people reflects impurely and confusedly the image offered up by its highest geniuses: these are not the product of the masses, but the masses show their repercussion,’ an indication of Nietzsche’s view of the second view of culture and the productive character of its individuals (KSA 7.19(1)). 54. Even between generations. Strauss, L. (1973). Barnes, J. (KSA 12, 473). KSA 9:11[157], 11[203], 11[311]), and he continually makes use of traditional images of cyclical time, such as the wheel (Rad) of time and the image of the ourobouros. In C. Wellmon & P. Reitter (eds), Anti-Education. (Allison, 2001, p. vii) Nietzsche, as Allison goes on to explain, is a critic who taught his followers to be free spirits contra everything heavy and thus went  on  to pen his Zarathustra. Nietzsche  Als  Philosoph. In German, Karl Jaspers names Nietzsche educator during the interregnum between two world  wars  (Jaspers,  1997  [1947];  cf. Nietzsche, Zarathustra, and Deleuze. 44 Nietzsche, KSA, 12, 7 [4], pp. (2015a). Nietzsche again wants to emphasize that human freedom is not some supernatural power, but is essentially consistent with a thoroughly naturalistic view of the world. (2001). Inventing the universe: Plato’s Timaeus, the  big  bang,  and  the  problem  of  scientific knowledge. Vol. The prophet of our laughter: Or Nietzsche as — educator?. Berlin: de Gruyter. Lanham: Edward Mellen Press. 7 Abbreviations. The thought  itself is shrouded in hypotheticals, if  one  were  able  to think it, if  one  could  allow  it to take hold of one, we are informed that it would be more than ponderous: it would transform or maybe, the alter- native is never vanquished, crush us. Nietzsche’s  imperative, amor  fati, calls upon  us to love what becomes, to consecrate becoming by highlighting, by restoring (this has to be done, this is the reason for action, for what was above named a bite, a selection) contra the Parmenidean vision of being, contra Plato: this is the innocence of becoming. Zarathustra, who goes to the side of the broken performer, comforts the dying man by telling  him what follows from the  Enlightenment,  rationalistic  and  naturalistic  and  scientific  account:  ‘… there is no Devil and no Hell. Recall the range of those who have written on Nietzsche ‘as  Educator’ we began by noting these many accounts, listing them, just by name alone. (1997). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pub. A Boundary 2 Symposium (Spring-Autumn). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cross-reference tool between the dubious The Will to Power and the original text of Nietzsche's notes. What returns is exactly what was: and there will be  nothing different in  it. 199–218). Berlin:  H.  Beyer  &  So€hne. This works because selection (i.e., saying yes to one thing, it can be anything at all) also means, given necessity, that everything else is also necessary: nothing can be dispensed with: everything must be affirmed, blessed. (See  Babich,  2017d for a recent overview, though I have been writing about this since the Sokal year of 1996), Nor does Nietzsche fail to summarize, cui bono?, he asks, when it comes to the futures of our educational institutions: the state who institutes these institutions seeks thereby, this will be Max Weber’s point more complicatedly construed in his analysis of the ‘Protestant Ethic,’ but it is very directly Ivan Illich’s point in his Deschooling  Society, ‘to further itself and it cannot conceive of a goal higher than its own welfare and continued existence’. John Locke was an important transitional figure from Hobbes to Rousseau and Kant in attempting to restore human dignity to an empiricist anthropology. 7 See Cosima Wagner¶s letter to Nietzsche of 24 June 1870, in Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche (ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Nietzsche on Freedom and Autonomy, pp. This driving force determines our own educational institutions, which Nietzsche presents in perfectly balanced  economic terms, as so many  given and chained conclusions, as if we were talking as indeed we are talking about a formula for increasing the gross national product of education per se: ‘as much knowledge and education as possible, therefore as much demand as possible, therefore as much production as possible,  therefore as much happiness and profit as possible’. T. Heilke offers a useful grasp of Nietzsche’s ‘musical’ politics: (1997) Nietzsche’s Tragic Regime: Culture, Aesthetics, and Political Education. However, Nietzsche does reserve scorn for the Enlightenment understanding of Bildung, represented by the ‘gebildet’ (UM 1.1), those philistines like Strauss who take themselves to be ‘cultured’ (gebildet) while reflecting the worst excesses of a shallow fashionable intellectual snobbery. J. Conant does not discuss this passage from UM 2.9 where Nietzsche is explicit about the inegalitarian character of his notion of ‘exemplar’. But perhaps the most essential insight for Nietzsche himself, corresponding to his economy of elective affinity and balance, like to like, is that what is really needed is less a gifted artist than a  gifted audience. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press. Click the button below for the full-text content, 24 hours online access to download content. Babich, B. Nietzsche  und  die  Pädagogik:  Werk,  Biografie  und  Rezeption. Lambert, 1986), giving lecture after lecture while musing on his lack of  perceived  success, thus  his  complaint  that the ears of those listening to him are not the ears for his message. misReading Nietzsche. 11, 50-4; G.W.F Hegel (1991) Elements of the Philosophy of Right, Trans. Schiller’s elaborated Kant’s point about the difficulty in discern ing human freedom in his essay Über Anmut und Würde ( F.Schiller (2005) ‘On Grace and Dignity,’’ in Schiller’s ‘On Grace and Dignity’ in Its Cultural Context, ed. Why  do  I  believe  in cause and effect? Login failed. In practice, this can mean that when Nietzsche turns out to have had his ponderous depths in addition to those we attribute to him, we can be inclined to discount those in advance. This indeed recurs in the more uncanny than beautiful word scene or painting that Nietzsche gives us in Zarathustra’s conversation with the dwarf in Of the Vision and the Riddle, claiming that the dwarf could not bear the weight of the thought itself. Nietzsche borrows the test for the true philosopher from his favorite author, Lucian and his little dialogue ‘Philosophies for Sale’ (cf., for discussion, Babich, 2013, p. 63): Let the philosophers grow untended, deny them all prospect of place and position within the bourgeois professions, cease to entice them with salaries, more, persecute them, show them  disfavour  —  you  will  behold miracles! (eds) (1998). Nietzsche’s Übermensch  as  a  Metaphor  or  Education. 276–277). for the difficult turns of the reading and not less for the fluidity of the moment, or the history of philology, Pierre Hadot, 1995)? too Babich, 2015b). Here it is to the point to note that experts, unburdened by erudition, nota bene, not unlike Wilamowitz, have for their part accused Nietzsche of getting his Greek wrong (Babich, 2009, pp. There are options for a one-off donation or a monthly one. The ethics of geometry: A genealogy of modernity. Babich, B. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Arthur  Danto  on  Nietzsche. The focus on ‘the greatest possible amount of happiness and profit’ Nietzsche could have observed during his own teaching in Basel but also reading Schopenhauer, for the whom the metaphor of economics was crucial. This  essay does not permit us to review Nietzsche’s habit of publishing and republishing his books as often as possible,  first  in  parts and then together, and then reissued yet again. Nietzsche, KSA 7, 165). The ‘fundamental idea of culture’ consists of this ‘perfecting of nature’. According to Nietzsche, Goethe represents the best example of a higher human (KSA, 6, 151-152). (2017b). Princeton: Princeton University Press. In the following section of Schopenhauer as Educator, Nietzsche returns to his Greeks to look at the original conditions that gave birth to philosophy and finds nothing  that resembles our  modern institutions of higher learning. Feliz Hausdorff als Philosoph.. Nietzsche-  Studien, 31, 195–240. The aim is the same as in art - its very own transfiguration and redemption (Erlösung)’ Google Scholar. Holub, R. C. (2015). But at the very least we can note that Nietzsche’s Zarathustra is less a prophet, ‘parodying’ the gospels or else proclaiming nihilism to a nihilistic age that would only presage the most nihilistic era of all that would be the coming century, and as we now increasingly see, our own century, than a teacher  (cf. 53–55), is not off base. What do we make of the thinker Nietzsche took for his Augustinian moment (cf. Nietzsche  als  Sophist  und  Erzieher  Weinheim:  Acta  Humanioria. Nietzsche’s philosophical  context:  An  intellectual  biography. Cambridge, MA: Zone. Essen: Blaue Eule. Del Caro, A. Conant, J. Not that it mattered given that that dancing star too would have to die. Not at you, but for you’. 33-50. Heelan, P. A. Taking this approach, however, risks confusing aspects of the Nietzsche legend with what is important in his philosophical work, and many commentators are rightly skeptical of readings derived pri… ‘Nietzsche  als  Erzieher’ kontra  ‘Nietzsche  in  der  Pädagogik?’. 263–290). Jahrhunderts. Paris:  Philogicum. Babich, B. The ‘aristocratic radical’ defenders include: B. Detwiler (1990) Nietzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism. Volume Issue Schopenhauer, A. Würzburg:  Königshausen  &  Neumann. 1867]), pp. Educational  Philosophy and Theory, 48(6), 589–604. N was nuts. Allison, D. B. At an early stage in his career Nietzsche saw his philosophic mission as anti-Platonic. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? I am still concerned to explore the question of Nietzsche as educator. XII, p. 280-281; KSA, vol. — Friedrich Nietzsche, KSA 12:9 [60], taken from The Will to Power, section 585, translated by Walter Kaufmann. Sorgner, S. (2017). See F. Nietzsche (1994) On the Genealogy of Morality, Trans. Most Nietzsche scholars and not just the analytic ones we are inclined to cut where they can: nothing too ponderous, and thus they make short work of such things. Thus the phrase appears as part of the editorial essay that prefaces Why Nietzsche Now? Why Nietzsche has once again become an inspiration  to  the  far-right. PESA Agora, similar to the ancient agora of Athens which was a place of artistic, spiritual and political life where citizens could gather to speak in public, is a meeting place for those interested in philosophy, education and culture in our contemporary world. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Rivista di Estetica, 45(28), 17–23. Babich, B. Bildung, self-cultivation, and the challenge  of  democracy:  Ralph  Waldo  Emerson as a Philosopher of Education. New York: Columbia Morningside Press. (Z, Vision, §2) The man, so Zarathustra muses, had perhaps been asleep, think of the Orphic tradition which Nietzsche also follows as this features the Orphic egg, and Phanes wrapped round with a snake (cf. Introduction “AMONG MY WRITINGS my Zarathustra stands alone” (Innerhalb meiner Schriften steht für sich mein Zarathustra; EH preface §4; KSA 6, 259). 11 Twilight of the Idols, What I Owe to the Ancients (§5); KSA 5, 160. And the circular answer is  the answer given, disdainfully, if we remember, by the dwarf: ‘All truth is crooked, time itself is a circle’ (Z 3. Here what may be worth noting is that Nietzsche does not seem to choose the exemplary educator we might have chosen for him. In M. Oehler (Ed. See preface to F. Nietzsche ‘Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks’, tr. Berkeley: University of California Press. * en français dans l’original. (Ibid.) The aphorism is one may submit, among the best laid out of Nietzsche’s descriptive aphorisms, outclassing the madman who declares ‘God is dead,’ crying in the market-place with the laughter of onlookers, his shattered lantern, defeated peroration, finally breaking into churches to play a requiem for the deceased.