Monier Monier Williams (2008 updated, Harvard University), Sanskrit English dictionary, दीप. It is an official holiday in a dozen countries, while the other festive days are regionally observed as either public or optional restricted holidays in India. Diwali (English: /dɪˈwɑːliː/; Deepavali (IAST: dīpāvali) or Divali) is a festival of lights and one of the major festivals celebrated by Hindus, Jains and Sikhs. [29][30] Newar Buddhists in Nepalese valleys also celebrate the Diwali festival over five days, in much the same way, and on the same days, as the Nepalese Hindu Diwali-Tihar festival. [48] (According to Indologist Constance Jones, this night ends the lunar month of Ashwin and starts the month of Kartik[49] – but see this note[note 3] and Amanta and Purnima systems.) [7] The festival usually lasts five days and is celebrated during the Hindu lunisolar month Kartika (between mid-October and mid-November). There's an indian king Ram of Ayodhya. Critics stated that the ruling was judicial over-reach and a bias against Hindu culture, while supporters stated that it would be beneficial to public health. Outside of India, it is more than a Hindu festival; it's a celebration of South-Asian identities. Food is a major focus with families partaking in feasts and sharing mithai. It is celebrated in October or November with the lighting of lamps in homes and temples , and with prayers to Lakshmi. More and more Australians are embracing Diwali -- the Hindi festival of light. [11][12][77][78], The religious significance of Diwali varies regionally within India. [139], The last day of the festival is called Bhai Duj (literally "brother's day"[142]), Bhau Beej, Bhai Tilak or Bhai Phonta. [21] The second day is Naraka Chaturdashi. Außerdem beschenkt man sich gegenseitig mit Süßigkeiten. Sitting quietly and fixing the mind on this supreme light illuminates the soul. [17][128] According to Rachel Fell McDermott, a scholar of South Asian, particular Bengali, studies, in Bengal during Navaratri (Dussehra elsewhere in India) the Durga puja is the main focus, although in the eastern and north eastern states the two are synonymous, but on Diwali the focus is on the puja dedicated to Kali. An Diwali selbst wird neue Kleidung angezogen und man macht sich schick, geht in einen Tempel, betet und feiert anschließend mit der Familie oder in der Nachbarschaft. The word Deepawali comes from the word the Sanskrit word deep, which means an Indian lantern/lamp. [40] The lamps from the puja ceremony are then used to light more earthenware lamps, which are placed in rows along the parapets of temples and houses,[125] while some diyas are set adrift on rivers and streams. [113] On this day, many Hindus clean their homes and business premises. [75], Diwali is celebrated by Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, and Newar Buddhists,[29] although for each faith it marks different historical events and stories, but nonetheless the festival represents the same symbolic victory of light over darkness, knowledge over ignorance, and good over evil. Still another possible reason has a more scientific basis: the fumes produced by the firecrackers kill or repel many insects, including mosquitoes, which are plentiful after the rains. [113] Some communities, particularly those active in Ayurvedic and health-related professions, pray or perform havan rituals to Dhanvantari on Dhanteras. Unlike some other festivals, the Hindu typically do not fast during the five-day long Diwali including Lakshmi Pujan, rather they feast and share the bounties of the season at their workplaces, community centres, temples and homes. Dipavali ( दीवाली, dīvālī; दीपावली dīpāvalī) genannt, bedeutet „Lichterkette” und ist das populärste indische Fest. [note 11] Contemporary Bengali celebrations mirror those found elsewhere, with teenage boys playing with fireworks and the sharing of festive food with family, but with the Shakti goddess Kali as the focus. A variety of sweets are prepared using flour, semolina, rice, chickpea flour, dry fruit pieces powders or paste, milk solids (mawa or khoya) and clarified butter (ghee). Je nach Region dauert es zwischen einem und fünf Tagen. Subhadra welcomes him with a tilaka on his forehead. Guru Amar Das, the third Guru of the Sikhs, built a well in Goindwal with eighty-four steps and invited Sikhs to bathe in its sacred waters on Baisakhi and Diwali as a form of community bonding. Diwali, auch Deepavali bzw. Some believe it to be the celebration of the marriage of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, with Lord Vishnu. The Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue was founded as Secretariat for non-Christians by Pope Paul VI. [111], Diwali is a post-harvest festival celebrating the bounty following the arrival of the monsoon in the subcontinent. It is believed that on this day, Goddess Parvati played dice with her husband Lord Shiva. For example, the Singaporean government, in association with the Hindu Endowment Board of Singapore, organises many cultural events during Diwali every year. [117], Naraka Chaturdashi is also a major day for purchasing festive foods, particularly sweets. Scholars contest the 527 BCE date and consider Mahavira's biographical details as uncertain. [129], On the night of Diwali, rituals across much of India are dedicated to Lakshmi to welcome her into their cleaned homes and bring prosperity and happiness for the coming year. [100][101][note 10], Diwali is not a festival for most Buddhists, with the exception of the Newar people of Nepal who revere various deities in the Vajrayana Buddhism and celebrate Diwali by offering prayers to Lakshmi. Each day has the following rituals and significance:[40], Dhanteras, derived from Dhan meaning wealth and teras meaning thirteenth, marks the thirteenth day of the dark fortnight of Kartik and the beginning of Diwali. It celebrates the sister-brother bond, similar in spirit to Raksha Bandhan but it is the brother that travels to meet the sister and her family. On this day, they feed the poor on an incredible scale. [168], Diwali was first celebrated in the White House by George W. Bush in 2003 and was given official status by the United States Congress in 2007. This includes Govardhan Puja, a celebration by Vaishnavites on the fourth day of Diwali. In den verschiedenen Teilen des indischen Subkontinents wird das Fest sehr unterschiedlich gefeiert, mit vielfältigen Bräuchen und unterschiedlichen mythologischen Bezügen. Diwali is celebrated for five days according to the lunar Hindu Calendar. Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. [139] According to Kinsley, the ritual use of cow dung, a common fertiliser, is an agricultural motif and a celebration of its significance to annual crop cycles. 10,000 on this Diwali: ASSOCHAM survey, "Festival of Lights: All You Need to Know About Diwali", "NextFins Celebrates Diwali With the Launch of INDF", "Prince Charles, Camilla celebrate Diwali in UK", "Their Royal Highnesses The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall Celebrate Diwali at BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, London", "Brown celebrates Diwali at 10, Downing Street, in a 'historic' first", "Pakistan parliament adopts resolution for Holi, Diwali, Easter holidays", "Muslim-majority Pakistan set to declare Holi, Diwali and Easter as public holidays", "Muslims join Hindus in Diwali celebrations in Pakistan's Peshawar", Location wise daily Ambient Air Quality of Delhi for the year 2015, Want govt to build 1600 km green wall along Aravalli, "India's courts take the fun out of a Hindu holiday", "Agricultural Burning and Air Quality over Northern India: A Synergistic Analysis using NASA's A-train Satellite Data and Ground Measurements", "Burns in the developing world and burn disasters", The Ancient Origins of Diwali, India’s Biggest Holiday, For More About deepavali from Karnataka Tourism Department, Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sembilan's Birthday, Anniversary of Installation of the Sultan of Terengganu, Declaration of Malacca City as Historical City, Declaration of George Town as World Heritage Site, Annunciation of the Virgin Mary / Annunciation of the Theotokos, Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust, Emancipation Day in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Fast in Honor of the Holy Mother of Lord Jesus, Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Nativity of Mary / Nativity of the Theotokos, Italian-American Heritage and Culture Month, Virgin Islands–Puerto Rico Friendship Day, Presentation of the Theotokos to the Temple, Urus Mubarak of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diwali&oldid=998963703, Articles containing Assamese-language text, Articles containing Bengali-language text, Articles containing Gujarati-language text, Articles containing Kannada-language text, Articles containing Konkani (individual language)-language text, Articles containing Maithili-language text, Articles containing Malayalam-language text, Articles containing Marathi-language text, Articles containing Punjabi-language text, Articles containing Nepali (macrolanguage)-language text, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 21:12. Erfahren Sie mehr. During Diwali, lights illuminate every corner of India, and the scent of incense sticks hangs in the air, mingled with the sounds of firecrackers, joy, togetherness, and hope. [105][40][81] On the evening of Dhanteras, families offer prayers (puja) to Lakshmi and Ganesha, and lay offerings of puffed rice, candy toys, rice cakes and batashas (hollow sugar cakes). [80], Many Hindus associate the festival with Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity, and wife of Vishnu. [note 12] Vishwakarma is the presiding Hindu deity for those in architecture, building, manufacturing, textile work and crafts trades. [41][108] According to David Kinsley, an Indologist and scholar of Indian religious traditions particularly in relation to goddess worship, Lakshmi symbolises three virtues: wealth and prosperity, fertility and abundant crops, as well as good fortune. Subhamoy Das is the co-author of "Applied Hinduism: Ancient Wisdom for Today's World." Außerdem gibt es eine ganze Woche frei. In his 11th century memoir on India, the Persian traveller and historian Al Biruni wrote of Deepavali being celebrated by Hindus on the day of the New Moon in the month of Kartika. It falls on the 15th day of the Hindu month of Kartik, so it varies every year. In Bengalen (Ostindien) verehrt man zu Diwali die schwarze Göttin Kali, die sowohl den Tod als auch die Überwindung des Todes versinnbildlicht. [79] The festival formally begins two days before the night of Diwali, and ends two days thereafter. The name Diwali comes from a Sanskrit word that means “row of lights.” The holiday is often called the Festival of Lights. According to Audrey Truschke, the Sunni Muslim emperor Aurangzeb did limit "public observation" of many religious holidays such as Hindu Diwali and Holi, but also of Shia observance of Muharram and the Persian holiday of Nauruz. The best and finest illuminations can be seen in Bombay and Amritsar. [79], Hindus of eastern India associate the festival with the goddess Kali, who symbolises the victory of good over evil. During the festival, Hindus, Jains and Sikhs illuminate their homes, temples and work spaces with diyas, candles and lanterns[14] [180] The smoke from the burning of the fields is carried by seasonal winds over the floodplain, where it is inverted by the colder winds and spread throughout the region for much of the winter. [105], According to Tracy Pintchman, Dhanteras is a symbol of annual renewal, cleansing and an auspicious beginning for the next year. Zu den Diwali Feierlichkeiten erlebt man Indiens kulturelle Vielfalt und geographische Größe mit über einer Milliarde Einwohnern. Upon seeing the beggar, Sita stepped out of her circle, and Ravana stole her and escaped with a chariot into the sky. Prosper and progress. Others use it as a celebration of her birthday, as Lakshmi is said to have been born on the new-moon day of Kartik. [8][9][10] One of the most popular festivals of Hinduism, Diwali symbolizes the spiritual "victory of light over darkness, good over evil, and knowledge over ignorance". One tradition links the festival to legends in the Hindu epic Ramayana, where Diwali is the day Rama, Sita, Lakshman and Hanuman reached Ayodhya after a period of 14 years in exile after Rama's army of good defeated demon king Ravana's army of evil. Each day of Diwali has its own tale to tell. [43] The festival is an annual homecoming and bonding period not only for families,[41][108] but also for communities and associations, particularly those in urban areas, which will organise activities, events and gatherings. Diwali was not a public holiday in Pakistan from 1947 to 2016. [144] On this day the womenfolk of the family gather, perform a puja with prayers for the well being of their brothers, then return to a ritual of feeding their brothers with their hands and receiving gifts. ", India Journal: ‘Tis the Season to be Shopping, Pakistan parliament adopts resolution for Holi, Diwali, Easter holidays, "The Svanti Festival: Victory over Death and the Renewal of the Ritual Cycle in Nepal", Diwali – Celebrating the triumph of goodness, Krishna Killed Narakasur – The Narakasur Legend of Diwali – Diwali Legend, Christopher H. Johnson, Simon Teuscher & David Warren Sabean 2011, https://www.drikpanchang.com/diwali/yama-deepam/yama-deepam-date-time.html?year=2020, http://www.swahainternational.org/the-yam-deep-or-jam-ke-deeya/, "Choti Diwali 2020 date: Kali Chaudas significance, when and how to celebrate - Times of India", "Diwali Festival 2020 India:Date,Story,Celebration,Diwali Special Gift", If You Missed Diwali in India, Dallas Is the Place to Be, Manchester Dashehra and Diwali Mela plans announced, Festive season to boost India gold buying, India's banks face pre-Diwali cash crunch, Diwali lights up consumer spending, festive spirit beats inflation, Fear Of Toxic Smog Leads India To Limit Diwali Fireworks, Firework Facts: Americans Incinerate $1 Billion in July Fourth Fireworks Every Year, Oneline sales may surpass Rs 30000 crores in festive months, Average family to spend Rs. Hindus rund um die Welt feiern Diwali mit Geschenken, Feuerwerken und Festessen im Familien- und Freundeskreis. The authors concluded that the contribution of the festival fireworks could lead to a 1.3% increase in the non-carcinogenic hazard index. Some Hindu communities mark the last day as Bhai Dooj or the regional equivalent, which is dedicated to the bond between sister and brother,[22] while other Hindu and Sikh craftsmen communities mark this day as Vishwakarma Puja and observe it by performing maintenance in their work spaces and offering prayers. Historically, Diwali can be traced back to ancient India. The third day is the day of Lakshmi Puja and the darkest night of the traditional month. [58][59] The 16th-century Portuguese traveller Domingo Paes wrote of his visit to the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire, where Dipavali was celebrated in October with householders illuminating their homes, and their temples, with lamps. According to a Government of Himachal Pradesh and India publication, the Vishvakarma puja is observed on the fourth day of Diwali in the Himalayan state. Halwasind kleine quadratische Süßigkeiten, die mit Nüssengefüllt und bunt verziert sind. [118] A mythological interpretation of this festive day is the destruction of the asura (demon) Narakasura by Krishna, a victory that frees 16,000 imprisoned princesses kidnapped by Narakasura. [75][76]{{refn|group=note|The Diwali-related inscription is the 4th inscription and it includes the year Vikrama Era 1268 (c. 1211 CE). [79], As per another popular tradition, in the Dvapara Yuga period, Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu, killed the demon Narakasura, who was evil king of Pragjyotishapura, near present-day Assam and released 16000 girls held captive by Narakasura. It is on the third day of Deepawali, Kartika Shudda Padyami, that Bali steps out of hell and rules the earth according to the boon given by Lord Vishnu. Audioaussprache auf Englisch anhören. The darkest night is the apex of the celebration and coincides with the second half of October or early November in the Gregorian calendar.